Procurement is the process of acquiring goods, services, or works from an external source, often through purchasing. There are several types of procurement handling, each tailored to different needs and circumstances. Here are some common types:

  1. Centralized Procurement:
    • All procurement activities are conducted by a central procurement department or team within an organization.
    • This approach allows for standardization, efficiency, and better negotiation power with suppliers.
  2. Decentralized Procurement:
    • Procurement responsibilities are distributed across various departments or units within an organization.
    • Each department manages its procurement needs independently, providing flexibility but potentially leading to duplication of efforts.
  3. Group Procurement:
    • Organizations collaborate to leverage their collective purchasing power.
    • This collaborative approach allows for bulk purchasing, cost savings, and better terms with suppliers.
  4. Outsourced Procurement:
    • Organizations may outsource their procurement activities to third-party procurement specialists or firms.
    • This can be a strategic move to benefit from external expertise and focus on core business functions.
  5. E-Procurement:
    • Electronic procurement involves the use of digital technology, such as online platforms and software, to manage the procurement process.
    • It can include e-sourcing, e-tendering, and online auctions for more efficient and transparent procurement.
  6. Strategic Procurement:
    • Focuses on aligning procurement strategies with overall business goals.
    • Emphasizes long-term relationships with suppliers, supplier development, and value creation.
  7. Sustainable Procurement:
    • Considers environmental, social, and ethical factors in the procurement process.
    • Aims to minimize the negative impact of procurement activities on the environment and society.
  8. Just-In-Time (JIT) Procurement:
    • Involves acquiring goods and materials precisely when needed, minimizing inventory holding costs.
    • Requires close coordination with suppliers and a reliable supply chain.
  9. Emergency Procurement:
    • Occurs in response to unexpected and urgent needs, such as natural disasters or equipment failures.
    • Typically involves expedited processes to quickly acquire necessary goods or services.
  10. Public Procurement:
    • Governed by specific regulations and guidelines for government or public sector organizations.
    • Emphasizes transparency, fair competition, and compliance with public procurement laws.
  11. Consortium Procurement:
    • Similar to group procurement, but involves forming a consortium of organizations with shared interests.
    • Often used in industries where collaboration among competitors can lead to cost savings.
  12. Built, Operate, Transfer (BOT) Procurement:
    • Common in infrastructure projects, where a private entity is responsible for designing, building, and operating a facility before transferring it to the public sector.

The choice of procurement handling depends on factors such as organizational structure, industry, regulatory requirements, and the nature of goods or services being procured. Organizations may also employ a combination of these approaches to meet their specific needs.

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